Sunday, January 17, 2016

Ecological Waste Management Program Compliance

White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Production:
Utilizing Cellulose Based Residues

January 11, 2016
Research and Development Council
Youth for Environment in School Organization


The school is one of the most high producers of waste paper in the community, unfortunately these materials were not properly utilized in which in most practice to get rid of these waste materials is through burning. Trust International Paper Corp. (TIPCO) said that the rate of wastepaper recovery in the Philippines is only 26 percent, the lowest among Asian nations, with Korea ranked first (Enriquez, 2002). This is due to no diverse introduction as to how to reutilize these materials into more beneficial products. The research and development of the youth for environment in school organization have decided to find solutions that may somehow regain the value of the waste papers in order to produce a highly beneficial products.

White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Production: Utilizing Cellulose Based Residues is a prototype experiment that investigates the feasibility of utilizing waste papers to grow edible mushrooms.  This experiment was done last March 1, 2012. Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible mushroom that is not yet locally popular. This was chosen to be the experimental fungi because it has this invasive characteristics. Spawn were solicited from the Department of Agriculture. Health benefits on the other hand, white oyster mushroom shows great contribution in lowering cholesterol (Bobek, 1991).   Research and Development Council of the YES-O headed by the research adviser determined that the mycellium of the fungi shows considerable inhibition of bacterial growth with absolute clearing within its zone of inhibition 24 mm in average, which means no any other bacterial growth observed inside and outside of the agar plate. Just recently, laboratory test done at the Institute of Chemistry at the University of the Philippines – Diliman, white oyster mushroom shows sugar suppression activity, alpha-glucosidase assays reveal that by organic extraction using ethanol white oyster mushroom could inhibit 22% of the total enzymatic activity. This is highly significant compared to the local herbs used to lower blood sugar for a diabetic patient, but this is insignificant when it is compared to acarbose that is used to inhibit enzymatic activity. It is then the road map of the research and development of the YES-O to investigate the local type edible fungi in the locality, and to utilize paper as a substrate.

Why paper?

Paper is a cellulose based material which individual glucose (C­6H12O6) is being firmly connected by Beta 1,4 bond. Cellulose therefore is a sugar polymer in which only specific enzyme could act against the bond to allow individual glucose units to break free from the chain and become an available source of energy to some forms of living organisms. The council have hypothesized that by applying thermal technique the cellulose become more accessible to the fungi’s mycelia.

A Paper substrate were thermally pre-treated for 45 minutes in a boiling water then allowed to cool. Excess water were allowed to drip off the paper until desired wetness achieved.  Mushroom spawn were placed at the center of the roll and was incubated for three weeks. Mushroom mycelia cover the entire surface until small fruiting bodies appeared and gradually developed into mature mushroom fruit body. The desired moisture and humidity were artificially maintained to mimic natural growing environment of the fungi.

Initial Result

After three to four weeks, the mushroom grow in a paper substrate. Please refer to the picture attached to this report.

There is no additional nutrient added to the substrate unlike to the other natural substrate like the rice straw that the nutrients of the plant can be accessed by the mushroom mycelia.  This perhaps is the reason why the mushroom fruiting body cannot grow that much compared to the mushroom growing in the natural substrate.
In this view, the research team planned to re initiate the experiment utilizing available source of common nutrient requirements and using again the paper substrate. Further analysis regarding on the mushrooms bioactive compounds will be initialized when there’s enough fruiting body produced.

Wednesday, November 11, 2015


The Research and Development Council of the Youth for Environment in School Organization of Trento National High School is composed of students coming from the Engineering and Science Education Program and the Special Science Class Senior Students. It is the collective tradition of the student's research team to work collaboratively on areas where scientific research and intervention is necessary to contribute additional new knowledge to the scientific community and also to provide alternative techniques for the welfare of the general public.  Student researchers engaged from the simplest research topic to the most complex one, and perform their experiments from the local laboratories up to the known national laboratories. 

Figure 1: The Department of Science and Technology Regional Testing Standards Office and Laboratory, located at the Caraga State University Compound, Ampayon, Butuan City.

Figure 2: The researchers in the picture from the right to the left is Marloie Menchavez, Leo Oliver Roldan, and Ryle Margate after their appointment with the Chief of Regional Testing Standard Laboratory Mrs. Jennifer Dejarme. 

This year's research revolves arround alternative source of energy, microbiology, and the Human Health Care.

Below are the following research titles, abstract and the corresponding researchers:

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Activity and In Vitro Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Capacity of Bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) Leaves, Culantro (Eryngium foetidum) Leaves and White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Ethanolic Extract

 Researcher:Marloie T. Menchavez


This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial and antidiabetic effect of the ethanolic extracts from the Bamboo leaves, Culantro leaves and White Oyster Mushroom. Methods include phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial test and α-glucosidase inhibition assay. Phytochemical analysis for bamboo leaves ethanolic extract shows the presence of alkaloids, quaternary bases, amines, unsaturated steroids, and saponins. Culantro ethanolic extract shows the presence of alkaloids, quaternary bases, amines, 2 deoxysugars, unsaturated steroids, and tannins (Margate,, 2015). The phytochemical analysis result for white oyster mushroom shows the presence of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids ad saponins (Roldan,, 2015). Antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts from bamboo leaves, Culantro leaves and White Oyster Mushroom were evaluated by using two test organisms Staphylococcus aureus (BIOTECH 1582) and Escherichia coli (BIOTECH 1634).  The extracts performed equally and greatly in both bacteria; however, they inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus better than that of Escherichia coliThere was a statistically significant difference between the three different ethanolic extracts in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The enzymatic inhibition capacity of extracts from the samples tested using Multiskan Go® UV/VIS Spectrophotometer. Alpha-glucosidase inhibition assay shows that the ethanolic extracts from White Oyster Mushroom exhibit 22% of α-glucosidase inhibition activity, higher than the extracts from Culantro and Bamboo leaves with only 12 % of inhibition activity. These findings may provide a prognostic approach in choosing which plant in particular is potential to be used for antimicrobial and antidiabetic purposes.

Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Activity by 2,2diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Assay of Bamboo Stem (Bambusa vulgaris) Ethanolic Extract

Researchers: Chabelita T. Visto, Nerica O. Alonzo, Christopher K. Dela Vega


       The present study was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity of Bambusa vulgaris along with the phytochemical constituents. Phytochemical were determined through phytochemical analysis and these phytochemical in plant extracts were tested through antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity. The examination was used to conduct scientific research where the first impulse is to verify the effectiveness of the bamboo stem against the bacteria that cause skin disease. By the results of the antimicrobial activity, the maximum activity was found to be on Staphylococcus. Data shows that significantly claims that bamboo stem is more effective against Staphylococcus than Escherichia coli. Within the test for (DPPH) antioxidant activity, it was observed that bamboo extract is 93.82% that is comparable to the positive control of vitamin C that has 95.33%.

Phytochemical Screening of Locally Grown Culantro Plant (Eryngium foetidum) Ethanolic Extract: Investigating its Potential Application to Inhibit the Proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus (BIOTECH 1582) and Escherichia coli (BIOTECH 1634)

Researchers: Ryle L. Margate and Judy Ann Carnecer


This project aims to determine the phytochemicals and antimicrobial capacity of culantro (Eryngium foetidum) ethanolic extract against Staphylococcus aureus (BIOTECH 1582) and Escherichia coli (BIOTECH 1634). Phytochemical analysis shows the presence of alkaloids, steroids, and tannins. Absence of flavonoids and saponins in the extract were noted. Microbiological analysis shows very active antimicrobial capacity with average of 23mm zone of inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and 20mm zone of inhibition on Escherichia coli. The comparison of antimicrobial activity of Culantro (Eryngium foetidum) with M100-S21 Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility was performed. Comparison between the mean of the two test organisms were determined through two-sample t-test. Data suggests that Culantro (Eryngium foetidum) was equally very active in inhibiting both Staphylococcus aureus gram-positive and Escherichia coli gram-negative short rods. Data also showed that culantro (Eryngium foetidum) conforms to M100-S21 Performance Standard for Antimicrobial Susceptibility. It implies further that culantro (Eryngium foetidum) extract is comparable to both antimicrobial agents against E. coli, and Staphylococcus species.

Fractional Distillation and Characterization of Ethanol from Fermented Mansanitas (Muntingia calabura linn.) Fruit Extract and Taro Corms Starch (Colocasia esculenta): New Perspective for a Feasible Alternative Source of Energy

Researchers: Jasmine A. Lagne, Jeraldine L. Montealto, and Grace P. Pagcaliwagan


This study seeks to determine if fermenting mansanitas (Muntingia calabura linn.) fruit and taro corm starch (Colocasia esculenta) will produce ethanol. There were two set-ups prepared separately the mansanitas (Muntingia calabura linn.) fruit and taro corms starch (Colocasia esculenta). Each samples were uniformly crushed into a soft pulp using a blender. Each set up were mixed with 10 grams of commercial yeast to commence fermentation. Each set-up has the ratio of 1500 grams: 1500 grams. The sample were fermented for 45 days. The two set-up were distilled using the simple distillation process and to make sure that the liquid is pure ethanol, fractional distillation process followed. Fermented mansanitas fruits yield 27.00 mL per kilogram of fruit while taro corm starch is zero. Distillate produced from mansanitas on the fractional distillation process was tested whether it is ethanol or not. The distillate were tested on a glass plate, using a match to ignite the fire. Extraction and Analysis of alcohol identified that the distillate is flammable with a blue flame color, Jones test shows blue-green flame coloration an indication for positive alcohol content. The ethanol derived from fermented mansanitas fruit is 0.9309 grams per milliliter. The ethanol purity produced from fractional distillation of fermented mansanita fruit is 42.08 %. This implies further that mansanitas can be an alternative source of ethanol. 

Mycelial Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Locally Grown White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in San Francisco, Agusan del Sur

Researchers: Riza Marie P. Lavilla, Leo Oliver G. Roldan and John Lloyd B. Machico


This study aims to determine the white oyster mushroom mycelial antimicrobial activity and the mushrooms fruit body free radical scavenging capacity.   Microbiological assay was done utilizing the mycelium ethanolic extract to determine if the fungi’s mycelium can induce antimicrobial biological activity in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the mean of the two types of bacteria. Microbiological assay shows that mycelial extract react differently in these two types of bacteria. Mycelial extract significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus than the Escherichia coli. Phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and steroids. No presence of tannins, cyanogenic glycosides and anthraquinone in the ethanolic extract.  The result of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Assay shows free radical scavenging activity of 77.29% from the sample of the mushroom fruit body ethanolic extract. Locally grown white oyster mushroom in San Francisco, Agusan del Sur shows promising antimicrobial activity and antioxidant capacity.

Sunday, November 8, 2015

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 1 of a research paper is a general introduction of the research in which making the reader understand why the research activity has to be undertaken is our main goal. One of our priority is to let the readers understand the following:

1. Background of the Study

These  information may come from different sources like online scientific journals, government agency owned sites, private scientific organizations, dissertations, thesis, online libraries, video and others.  In this section, we are going to establish the reasoning as to how we come up with an idea that makes us to think of this study. 

2. Significance of the Study

This section must show how important the study. Shows the possible benefits that the general population could get out from completing the study or perhaps may show the possible good contribution to a certain group people that shares common interest on the matter where you are investigating.

3. Research Objectives 

This section enumerates the target of the study, this serve as the guiding statement as to where the investigation should go. The parameter of the study is also being specified by stating the desired outcome of the treatment.

4. Research Problem

This is the interrogative form of the objectives. A simple restatement of the objective in interrogative form.

5. Hypothesis (Null)

Negating the desired outcome. This is the series of statement that is reserved to be rejected or accepted as suggested by the outcome of the statistical analysis.

6. Scope and delimitation of the study

This section clarifies as to where the study only revolve. It defines further the clear limitation of the study. Stating its only focus and the parameters being investigated.

7. Review of related literature and studies

This is one of the most important section of chapter one in which the scientific foundation of the study has to be clearly stated. Merging all important information in relation to the subject being investigated and was logically arranged in a way that the reader will understand the previous discoveries and breakthrough as you are working to deepen these current knowledge to the unknown.

Below is the link of the research paper done by one of our student researchers, print the file and bring it during our class.

Thursday, June 20, 2013


Researchers please send your soft copy of your project proposal through this link:

only project proposals submitted in this link will be accommodated, thank you.

Saturday, June 15, 2013


All students under research 1 courses including the biotech students will conduct research on multiple intelligences to the majority of the students of Trento National High School, this is to determine the learning profile of the school and to suggest teaching strategies that may fit to the type of learners found inside the classrooms. This study may somehow provide the information of the possible interventions/activities theoretically thought to fit on the current learning profile of the students. 

The research will try to figure out the number of students that falls under the following learning styles: 

  • Visual-Spatial - think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware of their environments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Tools include models, graphics, charts, photographs, drawings, 3-D modeling, video, videoconferencing, television, multimedia, texts with pictures/charts/graphs.

  • Bodily-kinesthetic - use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They communicate well through body language and be taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role playing. Tools include equipment and real objects.

  • Musical - show sensitivity to rhythm and sound. They love music, but they are also sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better with music in the background. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, tapping out time. Tools include musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, multimedia.

  • Interpersonal - understanding, interacting with others. These students learn through interaction. They have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts. They can be taught through group activities, seminars, dialogues. Tools include the telephone, audio conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, E-mail.

  • Intrapersonal - understanding one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through independent study and introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most independent of the learners.

  • Linguistic - using words effectively. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or stories. They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together. Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture.
  •  Logical -Mathematical - reasoning, calculating. Think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic questions. They can be taught through logic games, investigations, mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details. 
The researchers will also find the correlation of these styles to the other type of learning styles to see the interrelationship between them. By looking into this parameters, the researchers may propose holistic approach & practices that may somehow strengthen the intellectual well-being of the students.


YES-O RDC members, we are currently experiencing problems on the documents uploaded last school year including the YES-O MEMBERSHIP FORM. The ziddu webhost deleted the files uploaded in their system under my current account. I'm still in process of retrieving the documents and it will be posted soon.

Thursday, January 31, 2013

Welcome Research Beginners

From the first time i saw you presenting your output during the oral defense held last January 30, 2013 at the Conference Hall is indeed a heart touching experience for me as a research educator. Looking at you whose in a very young age tried to venture your young minds in the complicated world of research. From the first statement you have uttered at the front of the crowd with the panelist implies your determination to complete what is being required to you by your science teacher Mrs. Daylinda S. Nuñez. I suppose to rate you according to the technicalities of your work but i realize that it is not appropriate to do so since at your young age and considering the backgrounds that you earned from your previous subjects does not guarantee for me as one of the judges to rate according to the guidelines, but instead, i look at your willingness and excitement to present your findings of your own investigation. From those indicators mentioned provides the big possibility that you can make big contribution to the world of technology. I realized that research is not only to provide the best solution to the existing problem in the community but also provides avenue to develop skills needed to become the best researcher. And to that effect, you already have given me the courage to expand more the scope of my teaching, and that is to provide you the knowledge that i believe you need to be more efficient and fluent in doing this ambitious endeavors. 

To tell you, research is the head of everything, it is an art of investigation in which everything comes on its way in accordance to the direction provided by your own investigation. Nothing becomes possible in this world under the supervision of humans like us which where our desire directed us to go like making our everyday work easier than before, making almost everything automated for us to conserve time and effort. A corporate organization cannot proceed to the next level of their implementations when they cannot see the figures of possibilities ahead of time. Corporate organization can only have its way to go forward when a research have been done. 

You are correct indeed that we your educators cannot provide you everything, and it is also possible that we might have provided you an information that is not relevant to your needs or perhaps far from the truth in reality. Perfection is not by far away from us but we tried our best to be near to that level, and it is true that we your educators may deviate from being perfect at all times. That implies therefore that we your educators will only assist you to gain knowledge on something and learning together about that something which we both selected to be the subject of our understanding. Please do not come into thinking that your educators knows everything, educators perhaps have the higher number of experience regarding on this field but it does not guarantee for a perfect understanding on things. What I'am saying is that we, your educators could only provide you the situation for you to learn and practice your theoretical know how in the real setting. 

Keep this into your mind, that research is one of the powerful tools in the universe to change. To change things we want in accordance to our own desires, but let not be selfish to do the change in favor of our own desire, it is also important to consider the others, this is so in order to maintain harmony of living. 

There's a lot of things we need to talk about regarding on research, being with you for years may somehow help you to realize at the end that life is indeed beautiful to be lived with. And we can appreciate that more if we do research. 

Congratulations everyone, and God bless! 

From Sir Catipay